3 loại cá bạn không nên ăn

Cá là thực phẩm giàu đạm và omega 3, một loại axit béo lành mạnh mà cơ thể không tự sản xuất ra được. Omega 3 đóng vai trò thiết yếu trong não và được chứng minh làm giảm viêm, giảm nguy cơ bệnh tim, có lợi cho sự phát triển thai nhi trong bụng mẹ.

Loại cá bạn không nên ăn
Loại cá bạn không nên ăn

Cá giàu chất dinh dưỡng nhưng chế biến không kỹ có thể gây độc. Ảnh: Health

Cá sống

Theo phó giáo sư, tiến sĩ Nguyễn Xuân Ninh, Viện Dinh dưỡng Quốc gia, cá sống dưới nước, ăn tạp nên rất dễ bị nhiễm các loại độc tố và vi sinh vật sống dưới nước. Các độc chất này tích lũy lâu ngày trong cơ thể có thể dẫn đến nguy cơ mắc dị ứng, tim mạch, suy gan, thận, bệnh về đường tiêu hóa cho người.

Ngoài ra, gan mật phát bệnh chủ yếu là do bệnh sán lá gan. Người ăn các món sống hoặc chưa nấu chín sẽ mang theo sán lá gan vào cơ thể, đặc biệt là khi ăn thủy sản nước ngọt như cá, tôm, ốc, các loại dễ nhiễm ký sinh trùng do môi trường sống ô nhiễm.

Ký sinh trùng nếu không được tiêu diệt có thể lây sang cơ thể người, thậm chí cư trú trong ruột nhiều năm, phát triển tới chiều dài 1-2 m và gây ra những cơn đau quằn quại…

Cá chứa độc tố

Trứng cá, ruột cá, mật cá là bộ phận dễ bị nhiễm các loại độc tố và vi sinh vật sống dưới nước hoặc ký sinh trùng như trứng sán, trứng giun và giun xoắn. Do đó, nếu ăn ruột cá phải rửa thật sạch bằng muối, nấu chín, tránh nguy cơ mắc bệnh ký sinh trùng.

Mật cá cung cấp các men, enzyme song cũng chứa rất nhiều độc tố như tetrodotoxin, tác hại lên hệ thần kinh gây mệt mỏi, suy hô hấp, rối loạn hành vi. Ăn mật cá có thể bị trúng độc, sốc nhiễm khuẩn, chảy máu cấp thậm chí tử vong. Lưu ý khi chế biến nên tránh làm vỡ mật cá, tránh để dịch mật cá bắn vào mắt.

Ngoài ra, một số loại cá như cá nóc có chứa độc tố là Tetrodotoxin, tập trung ở trứng cá, ruột, gan, không bị hủy ở nhiệt độ sôi hay phơi khô, sấy. Độc tính của độc tố tăng mạnh vào mùa sinh sản của cá, từ các tháng 2 – 7 trong năm. Người ăn phải cá nóc có độc thường có biểu hiện khó chịu, mệt mỏi, chóng mặt… thậm chí tử vong nếu cấp cứu chậm. Đây là loại cá nguy hiểm không nên ăn nhiều.

Loại cá bạn không nên ăn: Cá chết

Người dân quanh ao, hồ thường nhặt hoặc vớt cá chết để làm thức ăn. Song, đây là mầm bệnh gây suy yếu hệ miễn dịch, khiến vi khuẩn tự do phát triển.

Bác sĩ Trần Văn Ký, chuyên gia về vệ sinh an toàn thực phẩm thuộc Hội Khoa học Kỹ thuật An toàn Thực phẩm Việt Nam, cho biết cá đã chết lâu ngày thì thịt của chúng bị phân hủy và sinh ra các độc tố. Người ăn phải loại cá ngày có thể bị ngộ độc cấp tính như rối loạn tiêu hóa, đầy hơi, khó tiêu, đau bụng, tiêu chảy…

Theo tiến sĩ Đàm Sao Mai, Viện Công nghệ sinh học và thực phẩm, Trường ĐH Công nghiệp TP HCM, quá trình cá bị phân hủy tạo thành các axit hữu cơ gây mùi hôi và làm biến đổi màu sắc, thành phần đạm histidin. Chất đạm này chuyển hóa tạo thành axit amin độc có tên là histamin. Khi vi khuẩn sinh sôi nhiều, lượng histamin cũng tăng theo và tích lũy trong thịt hải sản. Histamin rất nguy hiểm vì chịu được nhiệt, vẫn có thể gây ngộ độc dù đã được nấu chín.

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