Độc đáo chùa Khmer Nam Bộ

Ở Nam Bộ ngôi chùa được đồng bào Khmer xem là điểm sinh hoạt tôn giáo, văn hóa cộng đồng, đồng thời cũng đại diện cho bộ mặt cuộc sống của người dân địa phương.

Độc đáo chùa Khmer Nam Bộ

Chùa Som Rong, tên đầy đủ là chùa Botum Vong Sa Som Rong ở phường 5, TP Sóc Trăng, tỉnh Sóc Trăng.

Điểm đặc biệt ở các ngôi Chùa Khmer được xây dựng và bao bọc bởi những hàng cổ thụ như cây sao, cây dầu, cây thốt nốt…Các ngôi chùa đều có chung các kiến trúc như: cổng chùa, tường rào, ngôi chính điện, tháp đựng cốt, tăng xá, nhà hội, an xá… Chánh điện được xây dựng  trang trọng và phải nằm ở vị trí trung tâm của khuôn viên chùa.

Đồng bào Khmer quan niệm Đức Phật luôn ở bên che chở và ban phước lành cho người dân nên ở trong các phum, sóc, người dân tự nguyện đóng góp tiền của để xây dựng ngôi chùa riêng cho địa phương mình. Trong hơn 1 triệu người Khmer sinh sống ở khuc vực Nam Bộ, có đến khoảng 600 ngôi chùa Khmer lớn nhỏ, trong đó có những ngôi chùa có niên đại rất lâu và được công nhận là di tích kiến trúc nghệ thuật cấp quốc gia như: chùa Âng, chùa Mẹt, chùa Hang, chùa Dơi…

Độc đáo chùa Khmer Nam Bộ - 1

Chánh điện của chùa Som Rong được thiết kế uy nghi, thể hiện rõ nhất nét kiến trúc độc đáo của chùa Khmer Nam Bộ.

Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ

Chùa Khmer có điểm chung, nóc chùa được thiết kế theo một tổng thể hình tam giác cân, mái chùa có ba cấp, mỗi cấp được chia thành ba nếp. Ở các bức tường chánh điện hay các cột kèo, cánh cửa đều được các nghệ nhân điêu khắc và trang trí các phù điêu đắp nổi, thể hiện các hình tượng tiên nữ xinh đẹp, chim thần Krud nâng đỡ mái chùa, chằn Yeak hung dữ, đầu thần Bayon bốn mặt…đây là những hình ảnh được lấy cảm hứng chủ yếu từ cuộc đời của đức Phật và đời sống cộng đồng người Khmer cổ tạo nên nét độc đáo tâm linh rất riêng cho ngôi chùa.

Đặc biệt ở cửa các ngôi chùa và hành lang chánh điện, thường xây dựng những con rắn Naga uốn lượn ở hai bên bậc thang hành lang đại diện cho những thế lực tà ác đã bị đức Phật quy phục.

Thời gian qua chùa Khmer là nơi sinh hoạt văn hóa xã hội, là trung tâm của các lễ hội truyền thống của người dân. Ngôi chùa còn đại diện hình ảnh và những nét đẹp trong văn hóa tín ngưỡng của đồng bào Khmer Nam Bộ.

 

Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ
Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ
Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ
Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ

Bảo tháp và khuôn viên độc đáo của chùa Bốn Mặt hay chùa Buôl Pres Phek ở xã Phú Tân, huyện Châu Thành, tỉnh Sóc Trăng.

Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ
Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ

Chùa Khmer nào cũng có các bức tượng tiên nữ Kemnar được gắn ở các cây cột hay các hàng rào cổ kính.

Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ
Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ

Chùa Dơi ở phường 3, TP Sóc Trăng với nhiều kiến trúc nổi bật, nơi đây có hàng trăm con dơi ngựa trú ngụ.

Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ
Chùa Khmer Nam Bộ

Chùa cổ Pôthi Somrôn ở quận Ô Môn, TP Cần Thơ là di tích lịch sử – văn hóa được xây dựng vào năm 1735.

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