Ngôi làng của quý tộc châu Phi

Tiebele được đánh giá là ngôi làng có một không hai của châu Phi, với những căn nhà xây bằng đất sét và được sơn vẽ đẹp.

Nằm ở phía tây nam của Burkina Faso, quốc gia không giáp biển, là một ngôi làng nhỏ tên gọi Tiébélé. Nơi này thu hút sự quan tâm của du khách nhờ vào sự độc đáo của sukhala – những ngôi nhà truyền thống không có cửa sổ với các bức tường đầy màu sắc.

Làng có diện tích khoảng 1,2 ha, là nơi sinh sống của người Kassena. Họ là những người đầu tiên định cư ở khu vực này vào thế kỷ 15 và là bộ tộc lâu đời nhất quốc gia. Hiện nay, những người sinh sống trong ngôi làng này đều là giới quý tộc Kassena. Việc họ trang trí, tô màu cho ngôi nhà là cách để phân biệt với nơi ở của dân thường trong bộ tộc.

Ngôi làng của quý tộc châu Phi
Ngôi làng của quý tộc châu Phi

Cư dân trong ngôi làng này đều thuộc giới quý tộc, tinh anh của bộ tộc và gồm cả thủ lĩnh đứng đầu. Ảnh: Bill Rodgers/Cfile online.

Vào năm 2017, khi du khách Mỹ Bill Rodgers ghé thăm làng, anh được yêu cầu không mặc quần áo màu đỏ và mang theo ô. Chỉ có những gia đình quý tộc mới có được đặc quyền làm điều đó. Nếu tuân thủ điều này, Bill tạo được mối quan hệ thân thiết với chủ nhà.

Bộ lạc Kassena là một ví dụ về những người biết sử dụng tài nguyên thiên nhiên để thể hiện nét văn hóa phong phú của mình. Họ trang trí nhà cửa bằng cách vẽ các hoa văn phức tạp lên quanh ngôi nhà. Công cụ chính là phấn màu. Tuy nhiên, nơi được trang trí công phu và đẹp nhất không phải nhà ở, mà là lăng mộ của người đã khuất. Người nhận nhiệm vụ trang trí này từ thời xưa thường là phụ nữ. Màu sắc được sử dụng là đen, trắng và đỏ.

Ngôi làng của quý tộc châu Phi
Ngôi làng của quý tộc châu Phi

Nhà ở đây có cửa vào rất nhỏ và thấp. Ảnh: Vintage news.

Ngôi làng của quý tộc châu Phi

Những ngôi nhà này không có cửa sổ nhằm phòng thủ và bảo vệ người trong nhà. Sau khi một căn nhà được xây dựng, những người sống ở đó sẽ phải đợi hai ngày. Nếu một con thằn lằn xuất hiện trong đó thì nó được coi là điểm tốt. Nếu không, ngôi nhà sẽ bị phá hủy.

Phần lớn du khách đều ở lại nơi này 2 ngày 3 đêm, để thư giãn và giải tỏa tâm trí vì Tiébélé yên bình, cách xa chợ lớn, đường lớn và các thành phố. Dù vậy, người dân nơi đây cởi mở, trung thực và thân thiện, khiến không ít du khách đã quyết định ở lại lâu hơn so với dự định.

Tuy nổi tiếng và được nhiều người biết đến, người dân trong làng vẫn không muốn biến nơi đây thành điểm du lịch đông khách. Lý do là họ muốn bảo tồn nguyên vẹn nơi sinh sống của mình. Tuy nhiên, trong tương lai, chính quyền đã có kế hoạch biến nơi này thành một khu du lịch hút khách để hỗ trợ kinh tế cho người dân địa phương cũng như gây quỹ để trùng tu các công trình cổ trong làng.

Ngôi làng Tiébélé nằm ở tỉnh Nahouri, phía tây nam của Burkina Faso, gần biên giới phía bắc Ghana 50 km. Thủ phủ của Nahouri là Pô, du khách thường tới Pô rồi bắt đầu tới làng Tiébélé.

Bạn có thể đến Tiebele bằng phương tiện giao thông công cộng. Nếu bạn đến Burkina Faso từ Ghana, bạn có thể băng qua vùng biên giới Paga. Ngôi làng này nằm trên đường để du khách tới thủ đô Ouagadougou.

Bạn có thể ghép xe với các du khách khác từ bên kia biên giới, mất 30 phút để đến nơi. Bạn có thể đi minibus với giá rẻ hơn, nhưng tốn nhiều thời gian di chuyển hơn. Khi đến Pô, bạn hãy tìm xe minibus để đến Tiébélé. Ngoài ra, bạn có thể bắt xe bus đi thẳng từ thủ đô đến ngôi làng này, mất khoảng 3,5-4 tiếng.

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