Thành cổ Timgad

Timgad là tên gọi ngày nay của thành phố Thaugadi thời đế quốc La Mã do Hoàng đế La Mã Trajan thành lập vào năm 100 sau Công nguyên dùng vào mục đích phòng thủ quân sự ở phía Bắc dãy núi Aures.
Thành cổ Timgad
Thành cổ Timgad

Sau hàng thế kỷ chìm đắm trong các cuộc xung đột tôn giáo, nội chiến và xâm lược tàn khốc, nền văn minh La Mã đã mất tầm ảnh hưởng trên Bắc Phi. Đến thế kỷ thứ sáu, Timgad bị thiêu rụi bởi những bộ tộc Ả Rập địa phương và cuối cùng bị chìm vào quên lãng trong hơn 1.000 năm.

Thành cổ Timgad
Thành cổ Timgad

Năm 1765, nhà thám hiểm người Scotland là James Bruce phát hiện ra khải hoàn môn, lúc đó ông không biết là mình đang đứng trên tàn tích của một thành lớn nhất từng được xây ở Bắc Phi – thành phố cổ Timgad.

Thành cổ Timgad
Thành cổ Timgad

Từ năm 1880, những cuộc khai quật khảo cổ đã phát hiện được những di tích của một thành phố được xây dựng theo những quy tắc chặt chẽ của trường phái quy hoạch đô thị La Mã ở đỉnh cao của nó với những công trình công cộng đặc sắc như: hội trường, điện Capitole, nhà hát, nhà tắm, đền thờ, khu chợ và thư viện công cộng. Vết tích các nhà thờ cho thấy Đạo Kitô được truyền đến Timgad ở thế kỷ III.

Thành cổ Timgad
Thành cổ Timgad

Ngoài ra, những nhà khảo cổ khai quật phần còn lại của thành Timgad rất thích thú khi tìm ra một dòng chữ khắc bằng tiếng La-tinh tại nơi hội họp công cộng, đó là “Săn bắn, tắm mát, vui chơi, cười đùa – thế mới là sống!”. Một sử gia người Pháp đã nói: “Có lẽ triết lý sống ấy không cho thấy tinh thần cầu tiến nhưng sẽ có một số người xem đó là bí quyết của sự khôn ngoan”.

Thành cổ Timgad - ảnh 4

Việc bảo tồn và giới thiệu khu di tích này đặt ra một số vấn đề: Phải xác định chính xác danh giới của khu di tích, có tính đến những phần chưa được khai quật toàn bộ. Để bảo vệ những tranh ghép mảnh tuyệt đẹp ở một số ngôi nhà trước chênh lệch về nhiệt độ, người ta đã quyết định di chuyển những bức quan trọng nhất vào nhà bảo tàng của khu di tích. Nhà cầm quyền địa phương đã tổ chức hàng năm liên hoan âm nhạc và sân khấu tại Timgad, nhưng những cuộc biểu diễn có thể gây hư hại cho nhà hát cổ đã bị đình chỉ.

Thành cổ Timgad - ảnh 5

Năm 1982. Tổ chức Khoa học, Giáo dục và Văn hóa của Liên hợp quốc UNESCO đã công nhận Timgad là Di sản Văn hóa Thế giới.

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