7 điều cần biết khi dùng kem chống nắng

Kem chống nắng là sản phẩm cần thiết, giúp con người hạn chế nguy cơ ung thư da. Dưới đây là những điều bạn cần biết về kem chống nắng.

Điều cần biết khi dùng kem chống nắng: SPF là gì?

SPF là chỉ số thể hiện khả năng bảo vệ làn da khỏi tia UVB. Để tính toán được chỉ số SPF, các nhà sản xuất phải thử nghiệm làn da khi có kem chống nắng và không có kem chống nắng, xem bao lâu thì da bị đỏ lên.

Lưu ý, chỉ số SPF và khả năng bảo vệ của kem chống nắng không tăng tuyến tính với nhau. Ví dụ, SPF 30 không có khả năng bảo vệ gấp đôi SPF 15. Điểm khác nhau là SPF 15 bảo vệ da khỏi 93% UVB còn SPF 30 bảo vệ da khỏi 97% bức xạ.

Cháy nắng đến mức độ nào thì có thể bị ung thư da

Mức độ cháy nắng tùy thuộc vào yếu tố di truyền và yếu tố môi trường tiếp xúc. Thế nhưng, da càng sẫm màu thì càng ít bị cháy nắng và nguy cơ ung thư da càng thấp. Ngược lại, làn da trắng dễ bắt nắng có khả năng ung thư da cao hơn.

Điều cần biết khi dùng kem chống nắng
Điều cần biết khi dùng kem chống nắng

Ảnh: Verywell Health.

Kem chống nắng và tác động đến hệ sinh thái

Từ năm 2015 đến 2018, một phần năm các rạn san hô trên thế giới đã chết, một phần vì kem chống nắng. Tháng 5/2018, các nhà lập pháp Hawaii đã ban hành dự luật cấm kem chống nắng có chứa oxybenzone và octinoxate gây hại cho rạn san hô trên đảo.

Thành phần trong kem chống nắng có an toàn cho sức khỏe

Nhiều bằng chứng cho thấy kem chống nắng an toàn, tuy nhiên khoa học đến nay vẫn chưa hiểu rõ tác động đến sức khỏe nếu sử dụng kem chống nắng trong một thời gian dài.

Một số nghiên cứu chỉ ra các loại kem chống nắng chứa para-aminobenzoic (PABA) và benzophenone có thể gây kích ứng với một số loại da, dẫn đến phát ban và nổi mụn. Các hóa chất trong kem chống nắng như avobenzone, oxybenzone, octocrylene, và ecamsule có khả năng đi vào máu nhưng chưa rõ hệ quả.

Khi nào nên bỏ kem chống nắng cũ

Hạn sử dụng của kem chống nắng thông thường là ba năm trong điều kiện nhiệt độ phòng bình thường. Nếu được đặt trong môi trường quá nóng hoặc quá lạnh, chất lượng sản phẩm sẽ bị ảnh hưởng, từ đó vô hiệu hóa chức năng của chúng.

Kem chống nắng có được sử dụng cho những vùng da khác

Viện Da liễu Mỹ khuyến cáo cộng đồng sử dụng kem chống nắng cho những vùng da phải tiếp xúc trực tiếp với nắng trước khi ra ngoài 15 phút. Với vùng da đã có sự hỗ trợ quần áo, bạn chỉ cần thoa một lượng vừa đủ cho da. Với các vùng da tiếp xúc trực tiếp với nắng, bạn nên bôi lại kem chống nắng sau mỗi hai giờ.

Biện pháp nào khác chống nắng ngoài kem

Chúng ta có thể sử dụng mũ và quần áo che chắn khi ra ngoài đường. Tuy nhiên, tia UV vẫn xuyên qua được các lớp vải nên thoa kem chống nắng vẫn là điều cần thiết.

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